Power Sources for electric vehicles

Arriving home fully charged

Let’s explore the different types of power sources for electric vehicles (EVs) and how they contribute to charging and maintaining the battery.

1. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs):

  • Fully Electric: BEVs run solely on electricity. They have large battery packs that store energy, and the vehicle is powered by an electric motor. Charging is done externally through charging stations or home chargers. BEVs do not have an internal combustion engine (ICE).

  • Charging: BEVs are charged by plugging them into electric outlets or dedicated charging stations. The battery stores energy, which powers the electric motor for driving.

  • Advantages: Zero tailpipe emissions, quieter operation, and lower operating costs compared to ICE vehicles.

  • Examples: Tesla Model 3, Nissan Leaf.

2. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs):

  • Combination of Gasoline Engine and Electric Motor: HEVs combine an internal combustion engine (usually gasoline) with an electric motor. They do not need to be plugged in for charging.

  • Regenerative Braking: HEVs use regenerative braking to charge their batteries. When braking, the electric motor acts as a generator, converting kinetic energy back into electricity.

  • Advantages: Improved fuel efficiency due to regenerative braking, reduced emissions, and no range anxiety.

  • Examples: Toyota Prius, Honda Insight.

3. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs):

  • Dual Power Sources: PHEVs have both an electric motor and an ICE. They can operate in all-electric mode (using the battery) or hybrid mode (using both battery and ICE).

  • Charging: PHEVs can be charged externally like BEVs. They offer a limited all-electric range before switching to hybrid mode.

  • Advantages: Flexibility to drive on electricity or gasoline, longer range than BEVs, and reduced emissions.

  • Examples: Chevrolet Volt, Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV.

4. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs):

  • Hydrogen-Powered: FCEVs use hydrogen fuel cells to generate electricity. Hydrogen reacts with oxygen in the fuel cell to produce electricity, powering the electric motor.

  • Charging: FCEVs do not require external charging. They refuel with compressed hydrogen at specialized stations.

  • Advantages: Zero tailpipe emissions (only water vapor), longer range than BEVs, and quick refueling.

  • Examples: Toyota Mirai, Hyundai Nexo.

5. Grid-Scale Batteries:

  • Energy Storage: These large-scale batteries are not directly onboard EVs but play a crucial role in supporting the grid and managing energy demand.

  • Location: Grid-scale batteries can be placed near wind farms, solar installations, or substations.

  • Advantages: Storing excess renewable energy for later use, balancing supply and demand, and enhancing grid stability.

  • Example: Tesla’s Megapack used for utility-scale energy storage¹.

6. Supercapacitors:

  • High-Energy Capacitors: Supercapacitors store energy electrostatically and can deliver rapid bursts of power.

  • Applications: While not commonly used in EVs for long-range driving, supercapacitors are suitable for regenerative braking and quick acceleration.

  • Advantages: Fast charging and discharging, long cycle life, and high power density.

  • Research Area: Scientists are exploring supercapacitors for future EV applications.

In summary, EVs utilize various power sources, from batteries and hydrogen fuel cells to regenerative braking and grid-scale batteries. Each type has its advantages and contributes to the overall sustainability of electric transportation. As technology advances, we can expect further innovations in EV power sources and charging infrastructure²³⁴⁵. 🚗⚡

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) Where Does the Energy for Electric Vehicles Come From? – ArcGIS StoryMaps. https://storymaps.arcgis.com/stories/7bed52d706024276b35d43e86fd8f2dc.

(2) Everything you need to know about electric vehicles | World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/12/electric-vehicles-questions-answer/.

(3) TYPES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES – NITI Aayog. https://e-amrit.niti.gov.in/types-of-electric-vehicles.

(4) Use of energy for transportation electric vehicles – U.S. Energy …. eia.gov/energyexplained/use-of-energy/trans...

(5) Types of Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles. https://e-vehicleinfo.com/different-types-of-energy-storage-systems-in-electric-vehicles/.

Certainly! Let’s explore some examples of how kinetic energy can be harnessed from moving electric vehicles:

1. Piezoelectric Roads:

  • Researchers at Rutgers University have developed a system that captures kinetic energy from traffic loading using piezoelectric materials embedded in pavement¹. When vehicles pass over these roads, the vertical force compresses the piezoelectric material, generating electric charges. These charges can then be converted into electrical power. Imagine roads and bridges serving as sustainable sources of energy!

2. Air Flow Around Moving Vehicles:

  • Airflow around a moving vehicle can also be a source of energy. Researchers have studied the possibility of recovering kinetic energy from the air flow around passing cars, buses, and trucks. By placing wind turbines near the road, close to the vehicles, and at an optimal height, it’s possible to harness energy from the moving air. This system is particularly effective in urban and suburban areas with high vehicle density².

3. Moving Cars:

  • One of the most straightforward examples of kinetic energy is found in moving cars. As a car travels down the road, its mass and speed determine its kinetic energy. The faster the car travels or the heavier it is, the greater its kinetic energy⁴.

4. Regenerative Braking:

  • Electric vehicles (EVs) use regenerative braking to recover kinetic energy during deceleration. When the driver applies the brakes, the electric motor acts as a generator, converting the vehicle’s kinetic energy back into electrical energy. This process helps recharge the EV’s battery and improve overall efficiency.

5. Kinetic Roads and Speed Bumps:

  • Some innovative road designs incorporate speed bumps or rumble strips that compress and release as vehicles drive over them. These mechanical movements can generate small amounts of energy, which can be stored or used for street lighting, traffic signals, or other low-power applications.

6. Flywheels:

  • Although not directly onboard vehicles, flywheels can store kinetic energy. In some hybrid systems, flywheels spin rapidly when the vehicle accelerates. During braking or deceleration, the flywheel’s rotational energy is converted back into electricity, assisting in propulsion.

Remember, capturing and utilizing kinetic energy from moving vehicles contributes to sustainability and reduces our dependence on fossil fuels. As technology advances, we’ll likely see more creative ways to harness this energy and power our cities! 🚗⚡

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) Generating power every time you hit the road – Rutgers CAIT. https://cait.rutgers.edu/generating-power-every-time-you-hit-the-road/.

(2) Study of Air Flow Around a Moving Vehicle as a Source of Energy – Springer. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-94774-3_1.

(3) 10 examples of kinetic energy in everyday life. https://nuclear-energy.net/energy/kinetic-energy/examples.

(4) Kinetic Roads: A New Way to Power Our Cities | Fluidconstructions. https://www.fluidconstructions.com/construction/kinetic-roads/.

(5) Potential & Kinetic Energy: The Physics of Braking & Traffic Collisions. https://www.epermittest.com/drivers-education/potential-and-kinetic-energy.

Certainly! Let’s explore regenerative shock absorbers, a fascinating technology that aims to convert the energy dissipated during vehicle suspension movement into useful electrical energy. These shock absorbers go beyond the traditional role of damping vibrations and play a dual role by recovering energy. Here’s what you need to know:

1. Regenerative Shock Absorbers:

  • A regenerative shock absorber is a type of shock absorber that converts parasitic intermittent linear motion and vibration into useful energy, such as electricity.

  • Unlike conventional shock absorbers that simply dissipate this energy as heat, regenerative shock absorbers aim to recover and utilize it.

  • These systems are particularly interesting for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) because the electricity generated can be used to enhance battery life or power accessories like air conditioning.

2. Types of Regenerative Shock Absorbers:

  • Electromagnetic Regenerative Shock Absorbers:

    • This system uses a linear motor/generator consisting of permanent magnets and coils to generate electricity.

    • Researchers have achieved promising results, with 20% to 70% of the energy normally lost in the suspension being recaptured using this electromagnetic approach².

    • The system has been further developed and licensed for practical applications.

  • Hydraulic Regenerative Shock Absorbers:

    • Developed at MIT, this system uses hydraulic pistons to force fluid through a turbine coupled to a generator.

    • Active electronics optimize damping, resulting in a smoother ride compared to conventional suspension.

    • Large companies like Walmart could potentially save millions annually by converting their trucks to this system².

  • Energy Recovery Potential:

    • Results show a great potential for energy recovery from automobile suspension vibration.

    • Both hydraulic and electromagnetic regenerative structures exhibit excellent performance and have significant development potential¹.

3. Benefits and Applications:

  • Energy Efficiency: Regenerative shock absorbers contribute to improving overall energy efficiency in vehicles.

  • Green Coordinated Development: As we address energy and environmental challenges, these systems play a crucial role in achieving sustainable transportation.

In summary, regenerative shock absorbers represent an exciting trend in vehicle technology, bridging the gap between energy dissipation and energy recovery. As research continues, we can expect further advancements in this field, benefiting both our environment and our driving experience! 🚗⚡

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) Regenerative shock absorber – Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regenerative_shock_absorber.

(2) A Comprehensive Review on Regenerative Shock Absorber Systems. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42417-019-00101-8.

(3) Regenerative Shock Absorber Research Review – IJERT. https://www.ijert.org/research/regenerative-shock-absorber-research-review-IJERTV9IS050299.pdf.

(4) Design Methodology for Shock Absorbers with Regenerative Effect for …. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-54814-8_3.

Regenerative braking is a fascinating technology that allows electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrids to recover some of the kinetic energy created during braking. Let’s dive into how it works and its benefits:

1. What Is Regenerative Braking?

  • When you hit the brakes on a car, it creates kinetic energy. Regenerative braking lets EVs and hybrids store some of that kinetic energy in the battery to use when you accelerate again.

  • The magic happens through the dual-rotation design of the EV motor:

    • One direction powers the car’s wheels during acceleration.

    • The other direction turns the motor into an electric generator when the car decelerates.

  • Part of the kinetic energy goes to the battery, while the rest powers the brake system to generate the necessary friction for stopping.

  • You might also hear regenerative braking referred to as ”B mode.”

2. How Does It Work?

  • Imagine coasting to a stop or manually hitting the brakes in an EV.

  • As you lift your foot off the gas pedal, the motor spins in the opposite direction, using resistance from the wheels.

  • Instead of turning all the braking energy into heat (as in gas vehicles), some of it is channeled into the motor, generating electric power.

  • Different manufacturers program their vehicles to engage regenerative braking at varying levels, so it feels different from braking in a gas car.

  • Some EVs allow you to tailor the brake system to your comfort level.

3. Benefits of Regenerative Braking:

  • Energy Efficiency: It improves overall vehicle efficiency by recovering energy that would otherwise be lost as heat.

  • Extended Brake Life: Traditional mechanical brake parts (discs, calipers, pads) wear out more slowly because regenerative braking shares the load.

  • Smooth Deceleration: It feels like the car is stopping itself as soon as you lift your foot off the gas pedal.

Remember, regenerative braking is a smart way to make the most of your EV’s kinetic energy and enhance both performance and sustainability! 🚗⚡

Sources:

1. [How-To Geek](https://www.howtogeek.com/788914/what-is-regenerative-braking/) ¹

2. [Wikipedia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regenerative_braking) ²

3. [Electrek](https://electrek.co/2018/04/24/regenerative-braking-how-it-works/) ³

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) What Is Regenerative Braking, and How Does It Work? – How-To Geek. https://www.howtogeek.com/788914/what-is-regenerative-braking/.

(2) Regenerative braking – Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regenerative_braking.

(3) Regenerative braking: how it works and is it worth it in small EVs …. https://electrek.co/2018/04/24/regenerative-braking-how-it-works/.

Certainly! Let’s explore how solar panels can generate power onboard a moving vehicle:

1. Solar Panels on Vehicles:

  • Solar panels, also known as photovoltaic (PV) cells, are designed to capture sunlight and convert it directly into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect.

  • Here’s how it works:

    • When sunlight strikes the surface of a solar panel, the photons in the light excite the electrons in the semiconductor material (usually silicon).

    • These excited electrons break free from their atoms, creating a flow of electrons and generating an electric current.

    • The current is then harnessed and directed to power the vehicle’s propulsion system.

  • Solar panels are typically mounted on the vehicle’s surface, and they consist of multiple interconnected PV cells.

  • To maximize efficiency, solar panels are often angled and positioned to receive the optimal amount of sunlight throughout the day.

2. Components of Solar Vehicles:

  • Solar vehicles incorporate several components to harness solar energy:

    • Solar Panels: These capture sunlight and convert it into electrical energy.

    • Battery Systems: Solar vehicles rely on battery systems to store excess energy generated by the solar panels. These batteries provide power to the vehicle’s electric motor when sunlight is unavailable or insufficient.

    • Advanced Battery Technologies: Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used due to their high energy density and long cycle life.

3. Examples of Solar-Powered Vehicles:

  • Sono Sion: Sono Motors collaborated with ARI to add solar panels to a 458 “Box Body” truck. While not a full-sized truck, it’s useful for city deliveries and can carry cargo. The solar modules on this truck can add up to 20 km of range daily without plugging in, and up to 45 km under ideal conditions².

  • Aptera: The Aptera electric vehicle claims to be a “never charge” vehicle, relying significantly on solar power for driving².

4. Challenges and Potential:

  • Solar panels on moving vehicles face challenges such as limited surface area, changing angles, and varying sunlight intensity.

  • However, ongoing research aims to improve solar cell efficiency and integration into vehicles.

  • While solar power alone may not fully replace traditional charging methods, it can significantly extend the range and reduce reliance on external charging infrastructure.

In summary, solar panels on vehicles represent an exciting step toward cleaner and more sustainable transportation. As technology advances, we may see more innovative ways to harness the sun’s power for our daily mobility! ☀️🚗⚡

Sources:

- [Sustainable Review](https://sustainablereview.com/how-solar-vehicles-work-a-deep-dive/) ¹

- [CleanTechnica](https://cleantechnica.com/2021/10/31/trucks-with-onboard-solar-are-becoming-a-thing/) ²

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) Trucks With Onboard Solar Are Becoming A Thing – CleanTechnica. https://cleantechnica.com/2021/10/31/trucks-with-onboard-solar-are-becoming-a-thing/.

(2) How Solar Vehicles Work: A Deep Dive — Sustainable Review. https://sustainablereview.com/how-solar-vehicles-work-a-deep-dive/.

(3) How To Transport Solar Panels Safely? | Solartechadvisor. https://solartechadvisor.com/transport-solar-panels/.

(4) How To Transport Solar Panels SAFELY: Best Practices Guide. https://offgridhq.com/how-to-transport-solar-panels-safely/.

(5) undefined. https://solarpower.guide/solar-energy-insights/how-do-solar-panels-work.

Certainly! Let’s explore how rotating wheels can create energy and how this concept is utilized in various applications:

1. Rotational Kinetic Energy:

  • When an object rotates, it possesses rotational kinetic energy due to its angular motion.

  • The formula for rotational kinetic energy is:

    \[ K_{\text{rot}} = \frac{1}{2} I \omega^2 \]

    Where:

    • \(K\_{\\text{rot}}\) is the rotational kinetic energy.

    • \(I\) represents the moment of inertia (a measure of how mass is distributed around the axis of rotation).

    • \(\\omega\) is the angular velocity (how fast the object is spinning).

2. Flywheels:

  • A flywheel is a heavy wheel that stores energy in the form of rotational motion.

  • How it works:

    • A flywheel requires significant force to set it spinning initially.

    • Once spinning, it tends to keep spinning due to its high angular momentum, storing a large amount of kinetic energy.

    • Think of it as a “mechanical battery” that stores energy in the form of movement.

  • Flywheels have been used historically in engines and machines during the Industrial Revolution.

  • They are making a comeback in various applications, including buses, trains, race cars, and power plants².

3. Energy Recovery from Moving Wheels:

  • Researchers have explored ways to capture energy from moving wheels:

    • Nanogenerators: These devices capture energy wastage caused by friction as car tires roll across the road. The captured energy can be converted into electricity, potentially improving fuel efficiency in cars³.

    • Frictional Charging: A new technology uses static electricity generated by the deformation of a tire’s footprint as it rotates. This electric power can be used for accessories like dashboard lights or radios⁵.

    • Regenerative Braking: Electric vehicles (EVs) use regenerative braking to recover kinetic energy during deceleration. When braking, the electric motor acts as a generator, converting the vehicle’s kinetic energy back into electrical energy¹.

4. Applications:

  • Flywheels are used in:

    • Energy Storage: They store excess energy and release it when needed.

    • Stabilizing Power Grids: Flywheels help balance fluctuations in electricity supply and demand.

    • Hybrid Vehicles: Some hybrid cars use flywheels to store energy during braking and assist during acceleration.

In summary, the concept of converting rotational motion into energy has practical applications in various fields, from transportation to energy storage. Whether it’s through flywheels, regenerative braking, or innovative technologies, capturing energy from rotating wheels contributes to efficiency and sustainability! 🚗⚡

Sources:

- [Explain that Stuff](https://www.explainthatstuff.com/flywheels.html) ²

- [Physics Stack Exchange](https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/564965/energy-of-a-rotating-wheel) ¹

- [Petrotech Inc.](https://petrotechinc.com/how-does-the-spinning-of-a-turbine-generate-power/) ⁴

- [Inceptive Mind](https://www.inceptivemind.com/new-technology-generate-electric-power-rotation-tire/8215/) ⁵

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) How do flywheels store energy? – Explain that Stuff. https://www.explainthatstuff.com/flywheels.html.

(2) New nanogenerator might set energy-generating car wheels in motion. https://newatlas.com/nanogenerator-energy-car-wheels/38224/.

(3) New technology to generate electric power from the rotation of a tire. https://www.inceptivemind.com/new-technology-generate-electric-power-rotation-tire/8215/.

(4) Energy of a rotating wheel – Physics Stack Exchange. https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/564965/energy-of-a-rotating-wheel.

(5) How Does the Spinning of a Turbine Generate Power?. petrotechinc.com/how-does-the-spinning-of-a...

Certainly! Let’s explore how rotating wheels and magnetic levitation (maglev) can be used for power production:

1. Rotating Maglev Sample Manipulator:

  • MI-Partners, a mechatronic innovation specialist, has developed a magnetically levitated sample stage for synchrotron beamlines.

  • This stage can be controlled in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF), including an infinite rotation around the vertical axis (z-axis) and a stroke of 3 mm along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

  • The system uses an electromagnetic actuator and a positioning metrology system to achieve nanometer-level positioning performance with high scanning accelerations and speeds.

  • It operates in a vacuum and allows for precise positioning of samples in the X-ray beam for tomography¹.

2. Maglev Wind Turbines:

  • Maglev wind turbines use magnetic levitation to support the spinning turbine.

  • Key features:

    • The turbine “floats” on a magnetic cushion, similar to how high-speed trains float above railroad tracks.

    • It can capture wind from any direction, converting wind energy to electricity with very high efficiencies³.

3. Energy Recovery from Maglev Trains:

  • Maglev trains use power for acceleration, stabilization during flight, air conditioning, heating, lighting, and other systems.

  • Regenerative braking is also employed, converting kinetic energy back into electrical energy when the train slows down.

  • The combination of magnetic levitation and efficient energy management contributes to the overall performance of maglev trains⁴.

4. Smooth Rotation with Maglev Technology:

  • Regenedyne has developed a magnetic levitation system that eliminates wobbling issues in rotating systems.

  • By combining advanced aeronautics with magnetic levitation, they achieve smooth, near-frictionless rotation⁵.

In summary, maglev technology offers exciting possibilities for energy production, whether through wind turbines, transportation systems, or precision machinery. Its ability to reduce friction and enhance efficiency makes it a promising field for innovation! 🚗⚡🌬️

![Impression of a beamline sample with possible scanning strategies](https://www.dspe.nl/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/Mikroniek-2024-2-Rotating-MagLev-sample-manipulator.pdf)

¹: [Read more](https://www.dspe.nl/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/Mikroniek-2024-2-Rotating-MagLev-sample-manipulator.pdf)

³: [Source](http://nuenergytech.com/maglev-wind-turbine/)

⁴: [Source](https://www.maglevboard.net/en/facts/11-energy-matters)

⁵: [Source](https://www.altenergymag.com/article/2014/08/vertical-axis-magnetically-levitated-and-magnetically-powered-wind-turbine-technology/1464/)

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) THEME FEATURE – DEVELOPMENT AND REALISATION OF A ROTATING MAGLEV SAMPLE …. https://www.dspe.nl/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/Mikroniek-2024-2-Rotating-MagLev-sample-manipulator.pdf.

(2) MagLev Wind Turbine | NuEnergyTechnologies. http://nuenergytech.com/maglev-wind-turbine/.

(3) Energy Matters – Maglev. https://www.maglevboard.net/en/facts/11-energy-matters.

(4) Vertical-axis, Magnetically Levitated AND Magnetically Powered Wind …. https://www.altenergymag.com/article/2014/08/vertical-axis-magnetically-levitated-and-magnetically-powered-wind-turbine-technology/1464/.

(5) THEME: PROGRESS IN ACTUATOR TECHNOLOGY ROTATING MAGLEV SAMPLE …. https://www.dspe.nl/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/Mikroniek-2024-2-preview.pdf.

Certainly! Let’s explore the power sources used in electric vehicles (EVs):

1. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs):

  • BEVs, also known as fully electric cars, rely solely on battery power. They do not have an internal combustion engine (ICE).

  • Battery: BEVs use a large traction battery pack to power the electric motor. These batteries are typically made of lithium-ion cells.

  • Charging: BEVs must be plugged in to a wall outlet or charging equipment (EVSE) to recharge the battery. Charging stations or home power sockets provide the necessary electricity.

  • Range: Once fully charged, BEVs have a set range before needing to be charged again. Advances in battery technology continue to improve EV range³.

2. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs):

  • HEVs combine both an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor.

  • Battery: HEVs have a smaller battery that cannot be charged with a plug. Instead, it benefits from a regenerative braking system that charges the battery during braking.

  • Fuel Efficiency: The electric motor assists the combustion engine, resulting in better fuel economy without sacrificing performance.

  • Example: Toyota Prius is a popular HEV¹.

3. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs):

  • PHEVs also have both an ICE and an electric motor.

  • Battery: PHEVs have a larger battery than HEVs, and it can be charged externally using a plug.

  • Dual Power: PHEVs can operate in all-electric mode (using the battery) or hybrid mode (using both battery and ICE).

  • Advantages: Flexibility to drive on electricity or gasoline, longer range than BEVs, and reduced emissions.

  • Example: Chevrolet Volt¹.

4. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs):

  • FCEVs use a different approach. Instead of a battery, they use a tank of stored hydrogen gas.

  • Chemical Reaction: The hydrogen mixes with oxygen in the air to create an electricity-forming chemical reaction.

  • Refueling: Once the hydrogen gas is depleted, the tank needs to be refilled, which can take less time than recharging an EV’s battery.

  • Example: Toyota Mirai, Hyundai Nexo².

In summary, electric vehicles primarily rely on batteries for power, whether it’s BEVs, HEVs, PHEVs, or FCEVs. Advances in battery technology continue to enhance EV performance and range, making them a sustainable choice for transportation! 🚗⚡

Sources:

- [World Economic Forum](https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/12/electric-vehicles-questions-answer/) ¹

- [How-To Geek](https://www.howtogeek.com/785214/how-does-an-electric-vehicle-work/) ²

- [Department of Energy](https://www.energy.gov/articles/road-electric-vehicle-future) ³

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) The Road to an Electric Vehicle Future | Department of Energy. https://www.energy.gov/articles/road-electric-vehicle-future.

(2) Everything you need to know about electric vehicles | World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/12/electric-vehicles-questions-answer/.

(3) How Does an Electric Vehicle Work? – How-To Geek. https://www.howtogeek.com/785214/how-does-an-electric-vehicle-work/.

(4) How Do All-Electric Cars Work? – Alternative Fuels Data Center. https://afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/how-do-all-electric-cars-work.

(5) Understanding the Energy Sources for Electric Cars | Wuling. https://wuling.id/en/blog/autotips/understanding-the-energy-sources-for-electric-cars.

Certainly! Let’s summarize the various power sources that can benefit electric vehicles (EVs):

1. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs):

  • Battery: BEVs rely solely on a large traction battery pack to power the electric motor. These batteries are typically made of lithium-ion cells.

  • Charging: BEVs must be plugged in to recharge the battery. Charging stations or home power sockets provide the necessary electricity.

  • Advantages: Zero tailpipe emissions, quiet operation, and lower operating costs compared to internal combustion engine vehicles.

2. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs):

  • Battery: HEVs have a smaller battery that cannot be charged with a plug. They use a combination of an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor.

  • Regenerative Braking: HEVs benefit from a ‘regenerative braking’ system that charges the internal battery during braking.

  • Advantages: Improved fuel economy without sacrificing performance.

3. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs):

  • Battery: PHEVs have a larger battery than HEVs, and it can be charged externally using a plug.

  • Dual Power: PHEVs can operate in all-electric mode or hybrid mode.

  • Advantages: Flexibility to drive on electricity or gasoline, longer range than BEVs.

4. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs):

  • Fuel Cell: FCEVs use hydrogen gas stored in a tank. The hydrogen reacts with oxygen to produce electricity.

  • Advantages: Zero tailpipe emissions, fast refueling, and longer range compared to BEVs.

5. Flywheels:

  • Flywheels store energy in the form of rotational motion. They can capture and store excess energy during deceleration and release it when needed.

  • Advantages: High energy storage capacity, low environmental impact, and versatility.

6. Maglev (Magnetic Levitation) Systems:

  • Maglev technology can be used for power production in various ways:

    • Maglev Wind Turbines: These turbines use magnetic levitation to support the spinning blades, capturing wind energy efficiently.

    • Maglev Trains: Maglev trains use magnetic levitation for propulsion, reducing friction and improving efficiency.

7. Nanogenerators from Rotating Wheels:

  • Researchers have developed nanogenerators that capture energy wastage caused by friction as car tires roll across the road. This energy can be converted into electricity, improving fuel efficiency in cars⁸.

In summary, a combination of these power sources contributes to sustainable transportation and reduces our reliance on fossil fuels. The future of EVs lies in continued advancements in battery technology, energy storage, and innovative solutions! 🚗⚡

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) New nanogenerator might set energy-generating car wheels in motion. https://newatlas.com/nanogenerator-energy-car-wheels/38224/.

(2) Where Does the Energy for Electric Vehicles Come From? – ArcGIS StoryMaps. https://storymaps.arcgis.com/stories/7bed52d706024276b35d43e86fd8f2dc.

(3) Everything you need to know about electric vehicles | World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/12/electric-vehicles-questions-answer/.

(4) TYPES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES – NITI Aayog. https://e-amrit.niti.gov.in/types-of-electric-vehicles.

(5) Use of energy for transportation electric vehicles – U.S. Energy …. eia.gov/energyexplained/use-of-energy/trans...

(6) Types of Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles. https://e-vehicleinfo.com/different-types-of-energy-storage-systems-in-electric-vehicles/.

(7) Energy of a rotating wheel – Physics Stack Exchange. https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/564965/energy-of-a-rotating-wheel.

(8) How do flywheels store energy? – Explain that Stuff. https://www.explainthatstuff.com/flywheels.html.

(9) How Does the Spinning of a Turbine Generate Power?. https://petrotechinc.com/how-does-the-spinning-of-a-turbine-generate-power/.

(10) New technology to generate electric power from the rotation of a tire. https://www.inceptivemind.com/new-technology-generate-electric-power-rotation-tire/8215/.

(11) THEME FEATURE – DEVELOPMENT AND REALISATION OF A ROTATING MAGLEV SAMPLE …. https://www.dspe.nl/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/Mikroniek-2024-2-Rotating-MagLev-sample-manipulator.pdf.

(12) THEME: PROGRESS IN ACTUATOR TECHNOLOGY ROTATING MAGLEV SAMPLE …. https://www.dspe.nl/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/Mikroniek-2024-2-preview.pdf.

(13) MagLev Wind Turbine | NuEnergyTechnologies. http://nuenergytech.com/maglev-wind-turbine/.

(14) Energy Matters – Maglev. https://www.maglevboard.net/en/facts/11-energy-matters.

(15) Vertical-axis, Magnetically Levitated AND Magnetically Powered Wind …. https://www.altenergymag.com/article/2014/08/vertical-axis-magnetically-levitated-and-magnetically-powered-wind-turbine-technology/1464/.

The power required to fully charge an electric vehicle (EV) within 60 minutes depends on the battery’s capacity and the charging station’s power output. Here’s a general formula to estimate the power needed:

\[ \text{Power Required (kW)} = \frac{\text{Battery Capacity (kWh)}}{\text{Charging Time (hours)}} \times \text{Charging Efficiency} \]

Assuming a charging efficiency of about 90% (to account for energy loss during charging), the formula becomes:

\[ \text{Power Required (kW)} = \frac{\text{Battery Capacity (kWh)}}{1 \text{ hour}} \times 0.9 \]

For example, if an EV has a 60 kWh battery, the power required to charge it in one hour would be approximately:

\[ \text{Power Required} = \frac{60 \text{ kWh}}{1 \text{ hour}} \times 0.9 = 54 \text{ kW} \]

This means you would need a charger that can provide at least 54 kW of power to fully charge a 60 kWh battery in 60 minutes. Keep in mind that this is a simplified calculation and actual charging times can vary based on several factors, including the state of the battery, the ambient temperature, and the specific charging technology used⁴.

It’s also important to note that not all EVs can accept the fastest charging rates due to limitations in their onboard charging systems. High-speed charging stations, often referred to as DC fast chargers, can provide power outputs ranging from 50 kW to over 350 kW, allowing compatible EVs to charge much more quickly¹.

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) Charging Calculator – ThinkEV. https://thinkev.com/charging-calculator/.

(2) How Long Does It Take to Charge an Electric Car? | U.S. News. https://cars.usnews.com/cars-trucks/advice/ev-charging-time.

(3) EV battery basics: All you need to know about kW, kWh, and charging speed. https://thenextweb.com/news/ev-battery-basics-kw-kwh-electric-vehicle-charging-lingo.

(4) HOW MUCH TIME DOES IT TAKE TO CHARGE AN ELECTRIC CAR … - Teltonika Energy. https://teltonika-energy.com/resources/blogs/how-much-time-does-it-take-to-charge-an-electric-car.

The amount of power that can be harvested from an electric vehicle (EV) in transit depends on various energy recovery technologies. Here are some key points:

1. Regenerative Braking:

  • This system captures the kinetic energy generated during braking and converts it into electrical energy, which is then stored in the vehicle’s battery.

  • The amount of power harvested can vary based on the vehicle’s speed, mass, and the efficiency of the regenerative braking system².

2. Suspension Energy Harvesting:

  • Energy can also be harvested from the vibrations and movements of a vehicle’s suspension system.

  • Advanced systems can convert this mechanical energy into electrical energy, contributing to the vehicle’s power supply².

3. Rolling Energy:

  • As the vehicle moves, there is energy involved in the rolling resistance of the tires.

  • Some technologies aim to capture this energy, although the amount harvested is generally less than what can be obtained from regenerative braking².

4. Waste Heat Recovery:

  • EVs generate heat through their powertrain and other systems. Waste heat recovery technologies can capture this thermal energy and convert it into electrical power².

5. Kinetic Energy Recovery:

  • This involves capturing energy from the motion of the vehicle, which can be stored and used later².

The actual kilowatts (kW) that can be harvested will depend on the specific vehicle design, the efficiency of the energy harvesting technology, and the driving conditions. While it’s challenging to provide a precise figure without detailed specifications, these systems can significantly contribute to the overall energy efficiency of electric vehicles. For instance, regenerative braking systems in EVs can recover a substantial portion of the energy typically lost during braking, which can be as high as 70% under certain conditions². 🚗⚡

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) Overview of the Potential of Energy Harvesting Sources in Electric Vehicles. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/16/13/5193.

(2) Energy Harvesting Technologies and Devices from Vehicular Transit and …. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/16/7/3016.

(3) Overview of the Potential of Energy Harvesting Sources in Electric Vehicles. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371317314_Overview_of_the_Potential_of_Energy_Harvesting_Sources_in_Electric_Vehicles/fulltext/647f22ebb3dfd73b77682f33/Overview-of-the-Potential-of-Energy-Harvesting-Sources-in-Electric-Vehicles.pdf.

(4) Energy harvesting for electric vehicles. https://www.electricvehiclesresearch.com/articles/3337/energy-harvesting-for-electric-vehicles.

(5) undefined. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073016.

(6) undefined. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16135193.

To estimate the kilowatts (kW) that can be harvested from various energy recovery technologies for an electric vehicle (EV) traveling at 100 km/h for 60 minutes, we need to consider the following:

1. Regenerative Braking:

  • The amount of energy recovered through regenerative braking depends on the frequency and intensity of braking events. For continuous travel at a constant speed of 100 km/h, regenerative braking would not be a significant factor, as it primarily generates energy during deceleration.

  • However, if we consider a scenario with periodic braking, studies have shown that regenerative braking can recover a significant percentage of the kinetic energy. For example, a BMW i3 could recover up to 60.1% of its kinetic energy through regenerative braking under certain conditions¹.

2. Suspension Energy Harvesting:

  • While specific kW values for suspension energy harvesting are not readily available, this technology is still in the research and development phase. It is designed to capture the energy from vibrations and movements of the vehicle’s suspension, which would be relatively constant at a steady speed of 100 km/h.

3. Rolling Energy:

  • Nanogenerators and other technologies that capture energy from the rolling resistance of tires are also in development. The energy captured would be minimal compared to regenerative braking and would depend on the vehicle’s weight, tire design, and road conditions.

4. Waste Heat Recovery:

  • Waste heat recovery systems can convert thermal energy from the vehicle’s powertrain into electrical energy. The efficiency of these systems varies, but they are generally more effective during higher power operations, such as acceleration or climbing, rather than steady-state cruising.

5. Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS):

  • KERS can include flywheels, hydraulic systems, and electrical systems (batteries or ultracapacitors). The efficiency of these systems can vary, but they are generally used to capture energy during deceleration rather than constant-speed travel.

For an EV traveling at a constant speed of 100 km/h, the primary source of energy recovery would be from waste heat recovery systems, as the other systems are more effective during changes in speed. The actual kW that can be harvested would depend on the specific vehicle’s design and the efficiency of the energy recovery technology employed.

In an experimental condition, it was found that the recovered energy at 100 km is 2.6 kWh; the energy recovery rate is 19.1%, and the power consumption ratio is reduced by 15.8%, improving the EV cruising range³. This gives us an idea of the potential for energy recovery even at constant speeds, although the exact kW would vary based on the vehicle and conditions.

In summary, while we can’t provide an exact kW value without specific vehicle data, these technologies collectively contribute to the overall energy efficiency of EVs, especially over longer distances and varying driving conditions. 🚗⚡

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) Analysis of Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems in Electric Vehicles – MDPI. https://www.mdpi.com/2624-8921/5/2/22.

(2) Braking energy management strategy for electric vehicles based on …. https://pubs.aip.org/aip/adv/article/12/1/015220/2819307/Braking-energy-management-strategy-for-electric.

(3) A Deep Dive into Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems — Part 1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1365/s40112-015-0927-4.

(4) Analysis of Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems in Electric Vehicles. https://mdpi-res.com/d_attachment/vehicles/vehicles-05-00022/article_deploy/vehicles-05-00022.pdf?version=1680071567.

(5) A Regenerative Energy Recovery System for Electric Vehicles Charging A …. https://www.astesj.com/publications/ASTESJ_050208.pdf.

(6) undefined. https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles5020022.

Certainly! Let’s explore how the rotation of a wheel can be manipulated and altered to produce energy:

1. Regenerative Braking:

  • One of the most common ways to generate energy from a rotating wheel is through regenerative braking.

  • When a vehicle (such as an electric car) slows down or brakes, the electric motor acts as a generator. It converts the kinetic energy of the moving wheels back into electrical energy.

  • This recovered energy is then stored in the vehicle’s battery for later use.

2. Suspension Energy Harvesting:

  • Researchers are exploring ways to capture energy from the vibrations and movements of a vehicle’s suspension system.

  • Special devices or systems can convert this mechanical energy into electrical energy, contributing to the vehicle’s power supply.

3. Rolling Energy and Nanogenerators:

  • Nanogenerators are devices that capture energy from the rolling resistance of tires as they move across the road.

  • While the energy harvested from rolling wheels is relatively small, it can still contribute to overall efficiency.

4. Waste Heat Recovery:

  • EVs generate heat during operation. Waste heat recovery systems can capture this thermal energy and convert it into electrical power.

  • These systems are more effective during higher-power operations, such as acceleration or climbing.

5. Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS):

  • KERS can include flywheels, hydraulic systems, and electrical systems (batteries or ultracapacitors).

  • They capture energy during deceleration or braking and store it for later use.

In summary, manipulating the rotation of wheels to generate energy involves various technologies. While each method has its limitations, collectively, they contribute to the overall efficiency and sustainability of vehicles. 🚗⚡

Sources:

- [New Atlas](https://newatlas.com/nanogenerator-energy-car-wheels/38224/) ³

- [Physics Stack Exchange](https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/564965/energy-of-a-rotating-wheel) ¹

- [IRJET](https://www.irjet.net/archives/V8/i4/IRJET-V8I4799.pdf) ²

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) New nanogenerator might set energy-generating car wheels in motion. https://newatlas.com/nanogenerator-energy-car-wheels/38224/.

(2) Energy of a rotating wheel – Physics Stack Exchange. https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/564965/energy-of-a-rotating-wheel.

(3) GENERATING ELECTRICITY FROM ROTATIONAL WHEELS IN VEHICLES – IRJET. https://www.irjet.net/archives/V8/i4/IRJET-V8I4799.pdf.

(4) Turbine Wheel: Unveiling Its Role in Power Generation. https://techiescience.com/turbine-wheel/.

Placing magnetic coils strategically inside the rotating wheels of an electric vehicle (EV) to produce energy is a concept that involves using the principles of electromagnetic induction. Here’s how it could work:

1. Electromagnetic Induction:

  • When a magnetic field moves relative to a coil of wire, it induces an electric current in the coil. This is known as Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.

  • In the context of an EV, magnets can be placed on the rotating part of the wheel, and coils of wire can be positioned strategically around the wheel.

2. Implementation:

  • The magnets could be attached to the wheel rim, and as the wheel spins, the magnets rotate with it.

  • The coils would be stationary, mounted close to the rotating magnets but not touching them.

  • As the wheel turns, the changing magnetic field through the coils would induce a current, generating electricity.

3. Energy Harvesting:

  • The electricity generated by this method can be directed to the EV’s battery system, where it can be stored and used to power the vehicle.

  • This system could serve as a supplementary charging method, extending the range of the EV by harnessing energy that would otherwise be lost.

4. Challenges:

  • The design must ensure that the added components do not interfere with the wheel’s balance or the vehicle’s overall performance.

  • The efficiency of energy conversion and the amount of power that can be realistically harvested need to be optimized.

5. Research and Development:

  • Studies and experiments are being conducted to explore the feasibility and efficiency of such systems. For example, a research paper discusses generating electricity from rotating wheels in vehicles by mounting magnets and copper coils in the wheel hub¹.

  • Another study presents a wideband electromagnetic energy harvester from a rotating wheel, aimed at developing a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) energy harvester².

In summary, strategically placing magnetic coils inside rotating wheels to produce energy is a promising area of research that could potentially contribute to the sustainability and efficiency of electric vehicles. While still in the experimental phase, such innovations could lead to practical applications in the future. 🚗⚡

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) GENERATING ELECTRICITY FROM ROTATIONAL WHEELS IN VEHICLES – IRJET. https://www.irjet.net/archives/V8/i4/IRJET-V8I4799.pdf.

(2) Wideband Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting from a Rotating Wheel. https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/40607.

(3) How Does the Spinning of a Turbine Generate Power?. https://petrotechinc.com/how-does-the-spinning-of-a-turbine-generate-power/.

(4) Power generated by a coil rotating in magnetic field – Physics Forums. https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/power-generated-by-a-coil-rotating-in-magnetic-field.963373/.

(5) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) in Electric Motors: Exploring its Impact …. techiescience.com/electromagnetic-field-emf...

Estimating the exact amount of kilowatts (kW) that can be produced by a generator using magnetic coils inside the rotating wheels of an electric vehicle (EV) is complex and depends on many variables. However, I can provide a theoretical approach to understand the potential energy production.

The power generated by such a system would depend on:

- The speed of rotation (which correlates with the vehicle’s speed).

- The strength of the magnetic field.

- The number of coils and their configuration.

- The efficiency of the energy conversion process.

For a vehicle traveling at 100 km/h for 60 minutes, we can make some assumptions to get a rough estimate:

- Assume the vehicle has four wheels, and each wheel has a generator.

- Assume each generator can produce a small amount of power, such as 0.5 kW (which is optimistic for current technology).

If each wheel’s generator produces 0.5 kW, then the total power generated by all four wheels would be:

\[ 0.5 \text{ kW} \times 4 = 2 \text{ kW} \]

Over the course of an hour (60 minutes), the total energy produced would be:

\[ 2 \text{ kW} \times 1 \text{ hour} = 2 \text{ kWh} \]

This is a simplified calculation and actual results could vary greatly. The real-world efficiency of such a system would likely be lower due to energy losses and practical limitations of the vehicle’s design and driving conditions.

It’s important to note that while the concept is theoretically sound, practical implementations of in-wheel magnetic coil generators are still in the research and development phase, and there are no widely available commercial systems that provide specific kW output figures for this application¹.

In summary, while we can estimate that a vehicle traveling at 100 km/h for 60 minutes could theoretically generate a few kilowatts of power using magnetic coil generators in the wheels, the actual amount would depend on the specifics of the system’s design and efficiency. 🚗⚡

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) GENERATING ELECTRICITY FROM ROTATIONAL WHEELS IN VEHICLES – IRJET. https://www.irjet.net/archives/V8/i4/IRJET-V8I4799.pdf.

(2) WEVJ | Free Full-Tekst | Magnetic Field Analysis and Development … - MDPI. https://www.mdpi.com/2032-6653/15/3/94.

(3) In-Wheel Motor Drive Systems for Electric Vehicles: State of the Art …. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/16/7/3121.

(4) undefined. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030094.

Among the technologies mentioned, regenerative braking has the potential for the most kW production in an electric vehicle (EV). This is because it captures the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost as heat during braking. The amount of energy that can be recovered depends on several factors, including the vehicle’s speed, mass, and the efficiency of the regenerative braking system.

Here’s why regenerative braking stands out:

- High Energy Conversion: During deceleration, a significant amount of kinetic energy is available for conversion to electrical energy.

- Frequency of Use: Braking occurs frequently during normal driving, especially in urban settings with stop-and-go traffic, providing many opportunities to harvest energy.

- Advanced Technology: Modern EVs are equipped with sophisticated regenerative braking systems that can recover a substantial portion of the kinetic energy.

While other technologies like suspension energy harvesting, rolling energy recovery, and waste heat recovery can contribute to the overall efficiency of an EV, they typically capture less energy compared to regenerative braking. The actual kW production from regenerative braking can vary, but it is generally the most significant source of energy recovery in current EVs. 🚗⚡

When comparing the use of hydrogen to charge batteries and then move a vehicle versus using hydrogen directly to move a vehicle, we’re essentially comparing battery electric vehicles (BEVs) with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCEVs). Here’s a comparison of their power generation and consumption:

1. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs):

  • Efficiency: BEVs are generally more efficient than FCEVs. The electricity used to charge the battery is converted to drive the electric motor with an efficiency of between 70 to 80 percent⁵.

  • Energy Consumption: For a BEV driving at 100 km/h, the energy consumption can vary widely depending on the vehicle model and driving conditions. On average, a BEV might consume around 20 kWh to travel 100 kilometers². Therefore, for 60 minutes at 100 km/h, the consumption would be approximately 20 kWh.

2. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCEVs):

  • Efficiency: FCEVs are less efficient overall due to energy losses in the hydrogen production process, storage, and conversion back into electricity within the vehicle. The well-to-wheel efficiency is estimated to be between 25-35 percent⁵.

  • Energy Consumption: If we consider the lower end of the efficiency range for FCEVs, they require 2-3 times more energy to drive the same distance as BEVs. This means that for a journey of 100 km at 100 km/h, an FCEV would consume the hydrogen equivalent of roughly 40-60 kWh of energy, considering the entire well-to-wheel process⁵.

In summary, BEVs are currently more energy-efficient than FCEVs for passenger vehicles. This means that for the same distance traveled at the same speed, BEVs will consume less energy and thus require less power to operate. However, FCEVs may offer advantages in other areas, such as faster refueling times and longer ranges, which can be important for certain applications⁵. 🚗⚡🌿

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) Battery Electric Vs Hydrogen Fuel Cell: Efficiency Comparison. https://insideevs.com/news/406676/battery-electric-hydrogen-fuel-cell-efficiency-comparison/.

(2) Energy consumption of full electric vehicles – EV Database. https://ev-database.org/cheatsheet/energy-consumption-electric-car.

(3) Electric vehicles and energy generation statistics. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/SEPDF/cache/103144.pdf.

(4) Electric Vehicle Energy Consumption Modelling and Estimation – A Case Study. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/er.5700.

(5) EV – Electric Vehicles Energy Consumption – miles/kWh vs. kWh/100 km. https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/ev-electric-vehicle-miles-per-kwh-to-km-converter-d_2190.html.

(6) Analysis of hydrogen fuel cell and battery efficiency. https://c2e2.unepccc.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2019/09/analysis-of-hydrogen-fuel-cell-and-battery.pdf.

(7) Efficiency Compared: Battery-Electric 73%, Hydrogen 22%, ICE 13%. https://insideevs.com/news/332584/efficiency-compared-battery-electric-73-hydrogen-22-ice-13/.

(8) Hydrogen Fuel Cells vs Batteries: Which Is Better? – MotorBiscuit.com. https://www.motorbiscuit.com/hydrogen-fuel-cells-vs-batteries/.

(9) undefined. http://www.energyefficiencycentre.org.

(10) undefined. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/%29.

Certainly! Here’s a summary of our chat:

- We discussed various technologies that can generate power on an electric vehicle (EV) in transit, including regenerative braking, suspension energy harvesting, rolling energy recovery, waste heat recovery, and kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS).

- We explored the concept of placing magnetic coils inside rotating wheels to produce energy through electromagnetic induction.

- I provided a theoretical approach to estimate the power that could be generated by such a system, considering a vehicle traveling at 100 km/h for 60 minutes.

- We compared the efficiency of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCEVs) in terms of power generation and consumption for a vehicle driving at 100 km/h for 60 minutes.

- I concluded that regenerative braking has the potential for the most kW production among the mentioned technologies due to its ability to capture a significant amount of kinetic energy during braking events.

Throughout our conversation, we delved into the mechanics and potential of each technology, considering their applications and the challenges they may face. If you have any more questions or need further clarification on any topic, feel free to ask! 🚗⚡

Yes, there are several potential power sources and technologies that could be onboard or brought onboard a moving vehicle to increase power production. Here are some innovative approaches:

1. Advanced Battery Technologies:

  • Solid-State Batteries: These batteries replace the liquid electrolyte with a solid one, potentially offering higher energy density, faster charging, and improved safety¹.

  • Sodium-Ion Batteries: An alternative to lithium-ion, sodium-ion batteries use abundant materials and could lower costs while still providing adequate power¹.

2. Battery Innovations for Faster Charging:

  • Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) Batteries: These batteries are gaining traction for their ability to charge faster and offer lower costs compared to traditional lithium-ion batteries⁵.

3. Energy Harvesting Technologies:

  • Thermoelectric Generators: These devices convert temperature differences (such as between the vehicle’s interior and exterior) into electrical energy.

  • Vibration Energy Harvesting: Similar to suspension energy harvesting, this technology captures energy from vibrations within the vehicle’s structure.

4. Solar Power Integration:

  • Integrated Photovoltaic Panels: Some vehicles are experimenting with integrating solar panels into the body of the car to provide additional power for charging the battery.

5. Wind Energy Harvesting:

  • Deployable Wind Turbines: Small turbines could potentially be deployed to harness wind energy while the vehicle is in motion, although this is more conceptual at this stage.

6. Power Electronics for Electric Vehicles:

  • Advanced Power Electronics: Innovations in power electronics can improve the efficiency of how power is managed and distributed within the vehicle, leading to better overall energy utilization⁴.

7. Nanofiltration for Lithium Extraction:

  • While not directly related to onboard power generation, advancements in lithium extraction, such as nanofiltration, can make the production of batteries more sustainable and efficient².

These technologies are at various stages of research and development, and some are closer to market readiness than others. As the EV market continues to grow, we can expect to see more of these innovations being integrated into new vehicle designs to enhance their power production and overall efficiency. 🚗⚡

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) The new car batteries that could power the electric vehicle … - Nature. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-024-00325-z.

(2) 6 EV Technology Innovations in Electric Vehicle Charging – Driivz. https://driivz.com/blog/ev-charging-technology-innovations/.

(3) 5 Companies developing Power Electronics For Electric Vehicles. https://www.startus-insights.com/innovators-guide/5-top-power-electronics-solutions-electric-vehicles/.

(4) Battery power: five innovations for cleaner, greener electric vehicles …. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2021/nov/26/battery-power-five-innovations-for-cleaner-greener-electric-vehicles.

(5) Electric Car Innovation: How Electric Vehicles Are Changing the World. https://www.plugandplaytechcenter.com/resources/electric-car-innovation-how-electric-vehicles-are-changing-world/.

I’ve reviewed the content available on blog.cbaconsult.eu related to electric vehicles and their power sources. Here’s a comparison with our previous discussion:

1. Self-Charging Batteries:

  • The blog discusses the concept of self-charging batteries, which aligns with our conversation about regenerative braking and other energy-harvesting technologies that allow EVs to recharge their batteries while in motion³.

2. Energy Harvesting Hydraulic Systems:

  • Similar to the suspension energy harvesting systems we talked about, the blog mentions hydraulic systems that can harvest energy, potentially adding to the vehicle’s power source³.

3. Self-Charging Cars:

  • The blog also touches on the broader category of self-charging cars, which includes vehicles that can generate power through various means, not just braking. This is in line with our discussion on technologies like solar panels and magnetic coils in wheels³.

4. Kinetic Energy Harvesting:

  • Kinetic energy harvesting, as covered in the blog, is another topic we discussed. It involves capturing the energy from the vehicle’s motion and converting it into electrical power³.

5. Perpetual Cyclic Generators:

  • The blog mentions the concept of perpetual cyclic generators. While this term isn’t widely used in mainstream discussions about EVs, it seems to refer to the idea of continuous energy generation, which may be more theoretical than practical at this stage³.

In summary, the findings on blog.cbaconsult.eu regarding electric vehicles’ power sources are consistent with the technologies we discussed. Both sources emphasize the importance of innovative energy-harvesting methods to enhance the efficiency and range of EVs. However, it’s important to note that while these technologies are promising, their practical application and efficiency can vary widely based on the specific design and implementation within each vehicle. 🚗⚡

Bron: Gesprek met Bing, 10-5-2024

(1) Electric Vehicles and self charging batteries – blog.cbaconsult.eu. https://blog.cbaconsult.eu/electric-vehicles-and-self-charging-batteries.

(2) CBA. https://blog.cbaconsult.eu/.

(3) Electric vehicles: the future we made and the problem of unmaking it …. https://academic.oup.com/cje/article/44/4/953/5859377.

(4) undefined. doi.org/10.1093/cje/beaa

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