The Handbook of Lithium Ion Battery Pack Design

The electric vehicle and Lithium Ion Battery pack designs for the future.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/book/9780128014561/the-handbook-of-lithium-ion-battery-pack-design

Front Matter

Chapter 1 - Introduction

The Handbook of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Design: Chemistry, Components, Types and Terminology provides a clear and concise explanation of how Li-ion batteries are designed. It offers insights from the perspective of managers, salespeople, product managers, or entry-level engineers who may not be experts in Li-ion battery design. The book covers the history of vehicle electrification, terminology, and basic battery calculations, making it useful for both beginners and experienced engineers entering the battery field1.

Whether you’re an electrical engineer, a mechanical engineer, or a chemist, this handbook helps you appreciate the interdisciplinary nature of Li-ion batteries and their role as energy storage systems. It’s a valuable reference for understanding battery design criteria and laying out new battery concepts

Chapter 2 - History of Vehicle Electrification

Chapter 2 - History of Vehicle Electrification

Let’s delve into the fascinating history of vehicle electrification. 🚗⚡

  1. The Birth of Electric Vehicles: The invention of the electric car cannot be attributed to a single individual or country. Instead, it was a series of breakthroughs in the 1800s that paved the way for the first electric vehicles on the road. Here are some key milestones:

    1. Early Innovations (1820s-1830s): Crude electric carriages were first conceived during this period. Innovators in Hungary, the Netherlands, and the United States began experimenting with battery-powered vehicles. Notably, British inventor Robert Anderson created the first crude electric carriage around this time.

    2. Practical Electric Cars (Late 19th Century): French and English inventors built some of the first practical electric cars. In the United States, chemist William Morrison introduced the first successful electric car around 1890. His six-passenger vehicle, capable of reaching a top speed of 14 miles per hour, sparked interest in electric vehicles.

    3. Ferdinand Porsche’s Contributions (1898): Ferdinand Porsche, founder of the sports car company bearing his name, developed an electric car called the P1 in 1898. Around the same time, he also created the world’s first hybrid electric car—a vehicle powered by both electricity and a gas engine1.

    4. Golden Age (1890s-1910s): Electric vehicles gained popularity during this period. They were quiet, emitted no exhaust, and required minimal maintenance. However, their limited range and the emergence of internal combustion-engine vehicles eventually led to a decline in their popularity.

    5. Dark Age (1920s-1950s): Gasoline-powered cars dominated the automotive landscape, and electric vehicles faced a decline. Factors such as improved road infrastructure and the availability of cheap gasoline contributed to this shift.

    6. Revival of Interest (1960s-1990s): Environmental concerns and oil crises renewed interest in electric vehicles. Concepts like the General Motors EV1 gained attention, but challenges persisted.

    7. Modern Era (2000s): Advances in battery technology, government incentives, and environmental awareness led to the resurgence of electric cars. Models like the Nissan LEAF and Tesla Roadster paved the way for the electric vehicle revolution we see today.

In summary, electric cars have a rich history dating back over a century. From the early experiments to the current surge in popularity, they continue to evolve as a sustainable and efficient mode of transportation.

Chapter 3 - Basic Terminology

Let's delve into the essential terms associated with electric vehicles (EVs). 🚗⚡

  1. Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle (ICEV): A traditional vehicle that operates using petroleum fuel.

  2. Electric Vehicle (EV): A vehicle powered by an electric motor. The term "EV" includes various types:

    • Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV): Operates solely on battery power.

    • Hybrid (HEV): Combines an electric motor and an internal combustion engine for enhanced efficiency.

    • Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHEV): Features a plug for recharging its batteries, enabling extended electric-only operation.

    • Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV): Relies mainly on electric power but has a combustion engine as a backup.

    • Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV): Primarily uses an internal combustion engine with assistance from a small electric motor.

    • Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV): Produces no pollutants while in operation.

    • Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV): Utilizes hydrogen fuel cells to charge the battery.

  3. Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP): A contemporary test assessing fuel consumption and emissions during real-world driving.

  4. New European Driving Cycle (NEDC): An outdated test replaced by WLTP, also measuring fuel consumption and emissions.

  5. Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV): A compact, low-speed electric vehicle.

For a more in-depth exploration of EV concepts, you may find this comprehensive handbook useful: handbook link

Chapter 4 - Battery Pack Design Criteria and Selection

  1. Battery pack

    Let’s explore battery pack design criteria and selection. 🚗⚡

    1. Ohm’s Law and Basic Battery Calculations:

      • Understanding Ohm’s Law is crucial for designing battery packs. It relates voltage, current, and resistance:

        • Voltage (V): The electric potential difference across the battery terminals.

        • Current (I): The flow of electric charge (measured in amperes, A).

        • Resistance ®: Impedance to current flow (measured in ohms, Ω).

      • Ohm’s Law: (V = I \cdot R)

      • Basic battery calculations involve determining the required voltage and current for a given application.

    2. Converting Customer Requirements into Pack Designs:

      • Consider the following factors:

        • Use Time: How long the battery needs to operate continuously.

        • Peak Current During Use: Maximum current drawn during peak load conditions.

        • Long-Term Average Current (LTAC): Average current over all use scenarios.

        • Functional Voltage Range: Includes minimum and maximum voltages needed for proper operation.

    3. Power to Energy Ratios:

      • Balancing power (rate of energy transfer) and energy (total capacity) is essential.

      • High-power batteries deliver bursts of energy quickly (e.g., acceleration in electric vehicles).

      • High-energy batteries provide longer runtime (e.g., laptops, smartphones).

    4. Large Stationary and Grid Systems:

      • Battery packs for stationary applications (e.g., grid storage) have different requirements.

      • Factors include safety, cycle life, capacity, and cost.

    5. Quick Formula Summary:

      • Energy (kWh) = (S \cdot P \cdot \text{Ah} \cdot V_{\text{nom}} \cdot \frac{\text{SoC usable}}{1000})

        • (S): Number of cells in series

        • (P): Number of cells in parallel

        • (\text{Ah}): Capacity of a single cell (ampere-hours)

        • (V_{\text{nom}}): Nominal voltage of a single cell

        • (\text{SoC usable}): Usable state of charge window (as a percentage)

Remember that battery pack design involves a delicate balance between performance, safety, and cost. Choosing the right battery chemistry, cell arrangement, and thermal management system is critical for successful EV deployment

  1. Select Chapter 5 - Design for Reliability/Design for Service

    Chapter 5 - Design for Reliability/Design for Service

    Pages 51-58

  2. Select Chapter 6 - Computer-Aided Design and Analysis

    Chapter 6 - Computer-Aided Design and Analysis

    Pages 59-63

  3. Select Chapter 7 - Lithium-Ion and Other Cell Chemistries

    Chapter 7 - Lithium-Ion and Other Cell Chemistries

    Pages 65-89

  4. Select Chapter 8 - Battery Management System Controls

    Chapter 8 - Battery Management System Controls

    Pages 91-101

  5. Select Chapter 9 - System Control Electronics

    Chapter 9 - System Control Electronics

    Pages 103-113

  6. Select Chapter 10 - Thermal Management

    Chapter 10 - Thermal Management

    Pages 115-130

  7. Select Chapter 11 - Mechanical Packaging and Material Selection

    Chapter 11 - Mechanical Packaging and Material Selection

    Pages 131-137

  8. Select Chapter 12 - Battery Abuse Tolerance

    Chapter 12 - Battery Abuse Tolerance

    Pages 139-151

  9. Select Chapter 13 - Industrial Standards and Organizations

    Chapter 13 - Industrial Standards and Organizations

    Pages 153-168

  10. Select Chapter 14 - Second Life and Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Chapter 14 - Second Life and Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Pages 169-176

  11. Select Chapter 15 - Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

    Chapter 15 - Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

    Pages 177-209

  12. Select Chapter 16 - The Future of Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electrification

    Chapter 16 - The Future of Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electrification

    Pages 211-216

  13. Select References

    References

    Pages 217-222

  14. Select Appendix A - USABC 12-V Stop/Start Battery Pack Goals

    Appendix A - USABC 12-V Stop/Start Battery Pack Goals

    Page 223

  15. Select Appendix B - USABC 48-V Battery Pack Goals

    Appendix B - USABC 48-V Battery Pack Goals

    Page 225

  16. Select Appendix C - USABC HEV Battery Pack Goals

    Appendix C - USABC HEV Battery Pack Goals

    Page 227

  17. Select Appendix D - USABC PHEV Battery Pack Goals

    Appendix D - USABC PHEV Battery Pack Goals

    Pages 229-230

  18. Select Appendix E - USABC EV Battery Pack Goals

    Appendix E - USABC EV Battery Pack Goals

    Page 231

  19. Select Index

    Book chapter Full text access

    Index

    Pages 233-239

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